Significant contribution of chemistry in ancient Indian science and technology

Chhavi Purwar

Ancient India, an important role in the development of chemistry was made by Ayurveda which used a variety of minerals. Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities. In any, early civilization, metallurgy has remained an activity central to all civilizations from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, to all other civilizations that followed. The Indus valley civilization was the earliest society, the story of early chemistry in India begins from here. Traces of cement had been ford in the era of Mohanjodaro. According to RigVeda, tanning of leather and dyeing of cotton was practiced during this period. After Vedas classical texts which give valuable information about the chemical activities of this period. The major chemical products of this period were glass, paper, soap, dyeing, cosmetics and perfumes, alcoholic lacquers, pharmaceuticals, gun powder and saltpeter. Nagarjuna (metallurgist) and Kanada were chemist of ancient period. Indian and Persian army used arrows tipped with iron. In the Gupta age metallurgical operations were found. Nataraja statue the god of dance is made of five metals Pancha Dhatu and Iron Pillar, Delhi is as a silent witness to assert the striking metallurgical skill of the Hindus. Paintings found on walls of Ajanta and Ellora also testify to the high level of chemical science achieved in ancient India.

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