The role of chemical compounds used in natural rubber production process on the etiology of nasopharyngeal cancer

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Author: 
Menicagli, R.
Abstract: 

Introduction and Objectives: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) has been shown to be highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Its incidence is higher in Chinese populations living in southern China, Malaysia, and Indonesia due to particular ethnic genetic polymorphisms. Anyway, the cancerogenesis activation happens only after the exposure to some environmental factorslarge scale epidemiological studies proposed associations between various dietary habits and an increase in risk for nasopharyngeal cancer, mainly for salted fish consumption. Our work is to highlight, with the support of the literature data and direct observations, such as the exposure to compounds, particularly the formaldehyde, present in the different working conditions of the countries with the highest incidence, may be the real cause environmental able to establish the carcinogenic process
Materials and Methods: The most recent publications regarding the impact of various external factors on Pub Med, Cochran Library, Google, TOXLINE, Chem., Abstract, were analyzed and Videos of You Tube
Results: The relationship between food consumption and nasopharyngeal cancer are not clear and statistically insignificant. The incidence data (ASR), Globocan published in 2012, indicate in Indonesia, Malaysia and the countries at greatest risk where the most dangerous environmental factor the carcinogenicity of the nasopharynx is the preparation of natural rubber, where the workers are exposed to various chemical compounds including formaldehyde, known carcinogen. Interesting fact about then the incidence of cancer in Chinese ethnic groups is resulting in decrease in the same populations when migrate from these Chinese districts, to other countries
Discussion: The production of natural rubber is the most important industrial activity for Malaysia and Indonesia. Various steps of the preparation and production of the same, exhibiting a lot of people to, acids and formaldehyde. The coagulation phase, that of the stripping, the drying of the rubber sheet, takes place without eminently of environmental hygiene precautions. The Chinese districts where there is higher incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer, are those where is concentrated most of the world production of components for the electronics, welding, and other machining operations with a strong environmental impact, but it can be observed from the data of literature that in migrant populations and not more exposed to pollutants, the appearance of these tumors decreases.
Conclusions: The EBV is certainly a significant risk factor, but its activation in carcinogenesis process is likely to be associated with exposure to compounds such as formaldehyde, present in industrial workings of countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, while in south China to many other characteristic pollutants of industrial activity cycles of this region and typical for the onset of cancer nasopharynx.

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