In Chad, the food security constitutes a problem insofar where the agricultural production cannot satisfy the demand. The main causes of this decline are often imputed to the climate whose the worsening remains certain, but also the no availability of resources genetic of the major cereals crops. Thus, some local varieties of corn are in the way of extinction because the producers cultivate the local and exotic varieties side by side, or they exchange their seeds and caused the loss of their genetic identity. The objective of the study is firstly, to collect and codify some local varieties of corn of Chad and secondly, to characterize them in situ in order to dispose the genetic resources. Ten local varieties have been harvested Ikad1, IKan2, IKan3, IKou4, IKan5, IKad6, BKan7, BKan8, DNga9 and DNga10 have been codified according to their localization and their ethnographic reference mark. They have been characterized from a classification based on their morphology, the environment in which they pushed and the cycle of culture. The different groups have been distinguished in relation to the length of the panicle, to the number of row per cob, to the number of grains by row and to the weight of grains who translate the genetic variability of these local varieties of corn. These local varieties of corn could be to the basis of a program of improvements of corn in Chad.
Prof. Dr. Bilal BİLGİN